Chongqing has complex terrain where rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds and impounding pools are scattered across its territory. The temperature has been rising lately, and the hazard of drowning is, again, creeping in. Drowning events happen in every spring and summer, and are very distressing to those who lose their family members. To prevent such tragedies from happening again, you should safeguard your safety and watch out for drowning:
I. Stay away from potentially risky waters
1. Watch out for the surroundings and stay away from potentially risk waters when walking by the waters, including rivers, reservoirs, mountain pools, etc. on the way to and from school.
2. Observe warning signs and protective facilities set up by related local authorities. Be sure to abide by the instructions and requirements and do not enter into forbidden waters.
II. Precautions for swimming
1. Do not swim alone if possible. Do not swim in waters where the conditions are unfamiliar, risky and can potentially cause drowning. Select a good and safe place to swim. Clearly know the relevant conditions of the place, including sanitary conditions of a reservoir or bathing place, the terrain under the water, existence of submerged rock outcroppings, undercurrent or weeds as well as the water depth of the area.
2. Swim in an organized way and under the care of teachers or people who are familiar with the water, so as to take good care of each other. In a collective swimming activity, be sure to count heads and appoint lifeguards to protect safety.
3. Be clear about your physical and health conditions before swimming. Do not swim in deep waters if you frequently suffer from limb cramps. Be well prepared before swimming. Do some stretching and warm your body up. In case of low water temperature, be sure to wet your body in the shallow water, so that you are well adapted to such water temperature. If you are wearing false teeth, be sure to take them off, which may fall into your esophagus or trachea when inhaling water.
4. Be self-aware of your skills in water and never show off your ability in the water. Do not jump into the water or swim under the water hastily. Do not play or have fun in the water; otherwise, you may get yourself choked, or even drowned. Do not swim in rapids or eddies, or swim while drunk.
5. Immediately get ashore for rest or call for help if you feel uncomfortable (e.g. dizziness, nausea, palpitation, short of breath, etc.) when swimming.
6. Do no panic in case of leg cramps when swimming. Kick your leg hard or try to jump, or massage and pull the muscle. Do not forget to call for help.
III. Precautions for taking a boat
1. Do not go boating in teams without complete safety measures.
2. Sit tight in the boat. Do not run around on the boat or wash hands/feet at the side. Avoid shaking when taking a small boat. Be sure not to overload the boat, which may be overturned or sink under excessive load.
3. Keep calm and follow orders from boating staff in case of any special circumstance. Do not jump into the water hastily. Do not rashly jump into the water to save any one from drowning.
IV Self-saving in drowning
1. Be calm and call for help if someone passes by;
2. Relax and let your body float on the water. Keep your head out of the water. Peddle with your feet. Conserve your energy and wait for rescue;
3. Press your palms down if you sink;
4. Call for help immediately in case of a sudden cramp in the water if it is impossible for you to get ashore. Take a deep breath and sink into the water if no one is around your. Stretch out the cramping leg and pull your toes up with your hands to relieve the cramp.
V. Ways to save others from drowning
1. On-site first aid is critical for drowning. CPR is the most important measure to take.
2. Take the drowner ashore and immediately clear up vomitus and dirt from the oral cavity and nasopharyngeal cavity to keep the breath smooth. Pull the tongue out to avoid blocking of the airway. Raise the abdomen of the drowner and let the chest and head droop, or hold the legs and put the abdomen onto the shoulder of the rescuer and walk or jump to “pour out the water”.
3. Restoring breath of the drowner is the key to successful first aid. Immediately perform artificial aspiration (either mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose) on the drowner. Transfer the drowner to the hospital at the same time of first aid.
VI. “Seven avoids” and “three musts”
1. “Seven avoids”: avoid going swimming without permission; avoid going swimming without classmates; avoid going swimming out of the company of parents or teachers; avoid going swimming in waters with no safety facilities or rescuers; avoid going swimming in unfamiliar waters; avoid going swimming in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds or wells; avoid jumping into the water to save others boldly.
2. “Three musts”: you must go swimming in the company of your parents or teachers; you must go swimming at normal swimming places with adequate protective facilities and rescuers; you must call for help if your companion is drowning and seek for help from adults. Do not hastily rescue others by pulling them with your hands.
For your own and others’ safety, please cherish your life and protect yourself against drowning!
June 1, 2020